The thing you will most notice after you have been doing meditation for a while (like at least a few weeks, or months) is a more stable, calmer mind. Because the basic technique is staying with just one mental object (the breath for example) this is what you learn how to do. If you are doing a maths problem you will find you can ‘just do that’. The mind is able to focus and stay where you want it to be – it’s not jumping about, getting distracted all the time. It is a lot more content to just be with the way things are.
Another result is clarity of mind; the mind is clear and uncluttered. Like cleaning a window – the mind is our ‘window on the world’. Notice the difference when you look out on a sunny day. It is hard to see anything clearly through a dirty window, everything looks a bit blurred. With a clean window all the objects are sharp and clear – life looks crisp.
Calmness and clarity are the social or psychological results of meditation. In relation to the religious or spiritual aspect, the (ultimate) result is a profound insight into the nature of all things. This is the transcendence of ignorance, knowledge of truth, the end of stress and selfishness – this is enlightenment.